5G is one of the latest but still rolling out wireless data connection technology. It is a cutting edge technology which will help unify everything and connect them altogether. 5G enables an internet speed which is far beyond the current data transfer rate. And because of its high data transfer rate it enable technologies like AI driven cars (driverless cars) and many more advance automations to work.
What is 5G?
5G is 5th generation mobile network as it is coming after 1G, 2G,3G, 4G Network. But, the approach behind the 5G is very different from all its previous generations. It drastically increases your download &uploads speed as compared to previous generation of networks. So, in a modern world perspective, 5G allow us to increase the AI capabilities of any gadgets due to its high transfer rates.
Technology behind 5G
It is based on a combination of many different technologies working together. And, Each part of these technologies helps to overcome a flaw.
So, this is how they work together.
1. Millimeter wave
5G technology is based on the millimeter wave. This is a radio wave with the frequency between 30 GHz to 300 GHz. It enables us to increase the spectrum bandwidth by a factor of 10 as compared to previous frequency used in networks.
But this radio wave frequency can easily be lost as it does not easily pass through any obstacle like walls etc. So, for that small cells are used.
The spectrum of a signal is the range of frequencies contained in the signal. The bandwidth is the difference between the lowest and highest frequency in the spectrum. So, the spectrum bandwidth is the width of the spectrum & it also tells us about the capacity of information a signal can carry.
2. Small cells
These are the miniature base stations which catch the signals & transfer it further. As they require very less power and area, they can be placed at every 250 meters in cities so that the signal remain strong everywhere.
In addition to broadcasting over millimeter waves, 5G base stations will also have many more antennas at the base stations as compared to today’s cellular networks. It helps to take advantage of another new technology: massive MIMO.
3. Massive MIMO
These base stations can support about a hundred ports, which mean many more antennas can fit on a single array. That capability means a base station could send and receive signals from many more users at once, increasing the capacity of mobile networks.
Installing so many more antennas to handle cellular traffic also causes more interference if those signals cross. That’s why 5G stations must incorporate beam forming.
MIMO, which stands for multiple-input multiple-output. MIMO describes wireless systems that use two or more transmitters and receivers to send and receive more data at once. Massive MIMO takes this concept to a new level by featuring dozens of antennas on a single array.
4. BEAM FORMING TECHNOLOGY
But this close range small cells using millimeter waves creates high interference. So, to overcome this, beam forming technology is used. It is a traffic-signaling system for cellular base stations that identifies the most efficient data-delivery route to a particular user, and it reduces interference for nearby users in the process.
So, these are the basic technology behind 5G. Except this, few other technologies are still developing to increase its efficiency.
Data transfer rate of 5G
Average data transfer speed of 5G is not yet known. Due to the need of so many cells to be installed, practical data is not available. But in theory the ideal 5G speed is 10 GB/s. At this speed, you could download a two-hour movie in just 3.6 seconds.
Companies working on 5G
- Samsung Electronics (South Korea)
- Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. (China)
- ZTE Corporation (China)
- Nokia Networks (Finland)
- NEC Corporation (Japan)
- Ericsson (Sweden)
- Qualcomm (US)
- Verizon (US)
- Orange (France)
- Mobile TeleSystems (Russia)
- AT&T (US)
- Cisco Systems (US)
Upcoming 5G smartphones
Advantages of 5G
- High data transfer rate
- Low latency which means faster load times and improved responsiveness when doing just about anything on the internet.
- Its vast application in automating industries. Making safer and more reliable system control.
- Smart homes where everything is interconnected & can be remotely controlled.
- Self-driving cars
- More information collection & deposal at your fingertip.
4G vs. 5G
There are a considerable amount of difference between 4G & 5G network. The main difference these two networks is the frequency they work on i.e. for 4G frequency is below 6GHz & for 5G it is around 30 GHz & above.
This gives a number of advantages to 5G over 4G.
- 5G can operate on smaller tower as compared to 4G.
- This frequency provides a larger Spectrum bandwidth which results in much higher data transfer rate than 4G.
- Due to smaller base station required, 5G can handle more number of users at a single station than 4G.
5G launch in India
5G networks were once expected to be launched in India by late 2020 or early 2021, but it’s now highly unlikely that this could happen before mid-2021. There is also a chance for it to take more time than this due to reasons like-
- TRAI has set reserve prices for the 5G airwaves it plans to auction, but according to CLSA, a brokerage and investment group, the base price per MHz for spectrum in the 3400-3800MHz band is USD 70 million in India as compared to USD 26 million in Italy, USD 18 million in South Korea, USD 10 million in the UK and USD 5 million in Australia. The telcos lack the resources to pay such high auction prices.
- The infrastructure needed for 5G is still far behind, for now base stations are still at experimental stage.
So, it’s no official launch time of 5G in India. As of the current condition it seems like it will take a while to begin in India.
Although 5G technology is allows a very high internet speed, but it also depends on the infrastructure & coverage area of network operators in your country. But, we can surely hope for a significant increase in data transfer rates as compared to current networks and surely an increased price of data.